Physical Education Exam Study Guide
    I. The Human Body, the Heart, and Heart Rate Monitors:

    A. In PE, we emphasize the importance of cardiovascular endurance. The three factors that are an indication of improvement are the mile run, PACER, and a lower resting heart rate.

    B. The best time to take your resting heart rate is when you first wake up in the morning.

    C. The 3 main components/equipment of our heart rate monitoring system are the monitor, chest strap, and transmitter.

    D. The 2 tests batteries we use at Ainger to test your cardiovascular endurance are the PACER and mile run.

    E. When using the heart rate monitor, the “standby” mode is used to be sure the equipment is working properly.

    F. A minimum of 125 beats per minute must be maintained in order to keep the TZ stopwatch moving while exercising. And you must be below 180 beats per minute while exercising.

    G. Calculating target heart rate zone: 
    The constant number is 220, as that is the maximum human heart rate.

    Subtract your age (which is the variable number). This equals the maximum heart rate. Multiply that answer by .60. Using the same number that you used after subtracting your age from 220 multiple that by .85. These two answers give you your target heart rate zone for your age.

    H. The names of the two arteries that you utilize when taking your pulse manually are carotid artery and radial artery.

    I. Average resting human heart rate is 72 beats per minute.

    J. The three main vessels that transport blood in the human body are arteries, veins, and capillaries.

    K. The four chambers of the heart and the function they perform are:
    1. left atrium – receiving chamber, receives oxygenated blood from lungs
    2. right atrium – receiving chamber, receives deoxygenated blood from entire body
    3. left ventricle – pumping chamber, pumps blood throughout entire body
    4. right ventricle – pumping chamber, pumps blood to the lungs where it receives oxygen

    L. The definition of anatomy is the structure of the human body, and the definition of physiology is the function of the human body.

    M. Three types of muscle in the human body are skeletal muscle, smooth muscle (most organs are made of this), and cardiac muscle.

    N. The F.IT. formula for fitness stands for Frequency, Intensity and Time.

    O. To burn the fat, stay at or around 60% of one’s target heart rate; to increase endurance or stamina exercise at 90% of your target heart rate.

    P. One in three adolescents is overweight.

    Q. Exercise benefits one socially, emotionally, intellectually, and physically.


    R. Activities or Sports that we play that have value for cardiovascular endurance are: Soccer, Team Handball, Red Sea, Floor Hockey, Basketball, Lacrosse, Fort Knox, Capture The Football, Ultimate Football.

    II. Sports & Activities 

    The one word or term that best describes “defense” in team and individual sports is prevent.

    A. Badminton:
    a. The shuttlecock or birdie originated in England from using real peacock feathers.
    b. In doubles, the person on the right is the first server. Teams can only score on their serve. The next server is the teammate beside them.
    c. The rackets have bevels to help one grip the racket for a better stroke.

    B. Basketball: 
    a. Double dribbling in basketball is an illegal move in which the player dribbles the ball with both hands simultaneously or, having stopped, starts to dribble again. If a double dribble violation occurs, then the ball is awarded to the opposing team out of bounds nearest the point where the violation took place.
    b. There are five people on the court per team and each basket is worth 2 points. Special shots include the free throw and three pointer in which teams are awarded one or three points.                                                      c. The two “basic” violations in basketball are the double dribble and traveling. Loss of possession occurs when one of these is committed.                                            

    C. Football
    a. An automatic rush of the quarterback in flag football is called a blitz. At 
    Ainger, when we blitz, we yell “Harvey” (This is in honor of our Principal).
    b. In flag football, the names of the two invisible lines extending across the field at the ends 
    of the ball as it rests prior to being snapped and at which each team lines up for a new play 
    is the line of scrimmage.

    D. Lacrosse
    a. A face off is used at the beginning of the game, each quarter, and after each goal is 
    scored in the sport of lacrosse.
    b. In lacrosse, the ball is kept in play by being carried, thrown, batted with the lacrosse stick, rolled or kicked in any direction.

    E. Pickleball
    The three things you must do when performing the serve in “pickleball” are
    a. Player must keep one foot behind the back line.
    b. The serve must be underhand
    c. The paddle must be below the waist.

    The ball is served diagonally (starting with the right-hand service-square), and points can only be scored by the side that serves. 

    Players on each side must let the ball bounce once before volleys are allowed, and there is a seven-foot no-volley zone on each side of the net, to prevent “spiking.” The server continues to serve, alternating service courts, until he or she faults. The first side scoring eleven points and leading by at least two points wins.

    F. Soccer
    A. We play “half-field” soccer as lead-up to full-field soccer to teach the concept of defense.

    G. Softball
    a. Know positions: Short stop-position between 2nd and 3rd, Outfield-furthest from home plate
    b. Tagging up is to retouch or remain on the runner’s base until the ball either lands in fair territory or is first touched.
    c. In slow pitch softball, an inning is that portion of a game within which teams alternate 
    on defense and offense, and each team is allowed three outs during its time at bat.
    d. In slow pitch softball, stealing and leading off is not permitted.

    H. Speedball
    a. Speedball--the game that combines certain aspects of football, basketball, and 
    b. Three ways to score in speedball and their point values are:
    Throw it in-1 point                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Kick it in – 2 points point                                                                                                                               
    Throw to a teammate over end line-3 points 
    c. When the ball is on the ground, soccer rules apply in speedball.
    d. Created in 1921 at the University of Michigan, this outdoor game teaches basic skills that 
    can be utilized across a number of activities, most notably, soccer and basketball.

    I. Team Handball
    a. 3 ways you can move the ball down the field in team handball is air dribbling, 
    passing, and dribbling
    b. No kicking involved in this outdoor game, just passing, dribbling and throwing.                                                                                                                                                                                                         c. When the ball hits the ground, it’s the other team’s ball.  

    K. Track & Field
    a. When properly performing the “Fosbury Flop”, the body parts that should go over the bar 
    first are your shoulders.
    b. Hurdling is not a jumping event, it is a regular extension of your running motion.
    c. In hurdling, you get over the hurdle using your lead leg and your back leg is 
    called the trail leg.
    d. The basketball technique that is used as an approach for the high jump is the 

    L. Ultimate Frisbee
    a. In team handball or ultimate Frisbee, when the ball or Frisbee hits the ground, the other team gets the ball.
    b. When a pass is not completed, the defense immediately takes possession of 
    the ball or frisbee and becomes the offense in these two sports, team 
    handball and Ultimate Frisbee.

    M. Volleyball
    a. Consists of six players on the court. 
    b. Played with rally scoring, where a point is scored with every possession.
    c. A serve can be overhand or underhand and can hit the net on its way over. 
    d. In volleyball, a team must win by 2 points. Also, if the ball hits the 
    boundary line, it is considered in. Volleyball uses the system of “rally 
    scoring” in that it does not matter who serves, a point can be served at any 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Floor Hockey                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a. The name of the position that guards the goal or net to prevent a goal is the goalie.                                                                                                                                                                                                  b. The number one SAFETY phrase when playing floor hockey in Keisling’s class is “Keep Your Sticks Down”.                                                                                                                                                                   c. The resitance that a surface or object encounters when moving another is friction.

    Sports or activities that we play that use the overhand pattern of throwing:  Flag Football, Basketball, Soccer, Speedball, Team Handball, Softball, Capture the Football, Fort Knox, Ultimate Football, Two Base Kickball, Four Base Kickball

    Sports or activities that we use an implement: Softball, Tennis, Badmitton, Lacrosse, Floor Hockey, Pickleball